`COUNT()`

, `SUM()`

, `AVG()`

, `MIN()`

, `MAX()`

.
Some databases support other aggregate functions, like:
`EVERY()`

`STDDEV_POP()`

`STDDEV_SAMP()`

`VAR_POP()`

`VAR_SAMP()`

`ARRAY_AGG()`

`STRING_AGG()`

### Java 8 Stream Collector

When using Java 8 streams, we can easily roll our own aggregate function (i.e. a`Collector`

). Let’s assume we want to find the second highest value in a stream. The highest value can be obtained like this:
```
System.out.println(
Stream.of(1, 2, 3, 4)
.collect(Collectors.maxBy(Integer::compareTo))
) ;
```

Optional[4]Now, what about the second highest value? We can write the following collector:

```
System.out.println(
Stream.of(1, 6, 2, 3, 4, 4, 5).parallel()
.collect(Collector.of(
() -> new int[] {
Integer.MIN_VALUE,
Integer.MIN_VALUE
},
(a, i) -> {
if (a[0] < i) {
a[1] = a[0];
a[0] = i;
}
else if (a[1] < i)
a[1] = i;
},
(a1, a2) -> {
if (a2[0] > a1[0]) {
a1[1] = a1[0];
a1[0] = a2[0];
if (a2[1] > a1[1])
a1[1] = a2[1];
}
else if (a2[0] > a1[1])
a1[1] = a2[0];
return a1;
},
a -> a[1]
))
) ;
```

**Supplier<int[]>**: A*supplier*that provides an intermediary`int[]`

of length 2, initialised with`Integer.MIN_VALUE`

, each. This array will remember the`MAX()`

value in the stream at position 0 and the`SECOND_MAX()`

value in the stream at position 1**BiConsumer<int[], Integer>**: A*accumulator*that accumulates new values from the stream into our intermediary data structure.**BinaryOperator<int[]>**: A*combiner*that combines two intermediary data structures. This is used for parallel streams only.**Function<int[], Integer>**: The*finisher*function that extracts the`SECOND_MAX()`

function from the second position in our intermediary array.

5

### How to do the same thing with SQL?

Many SQL databases offer a very similar way of calculating custom aggregate functions. Here’s how to do the exact same thing with…**Oracle:**With the usual syntactic ceremony…

```
CREATE TYPE u_second_max AS OBJECT (
-- Intermediary data structure
MAX NUMBER,
SECMAX NUMBER,
-- Corresponds to the Collector.supplier() function
STATIC FUNCTION ODCIAggregateInitialize(sctx IN OUT u_second_max) RETURN NUMBER,
-- Corresponds to the Collector.accumulate() function
MEMBER FUNCTION ODCIAggregateIterate(self IN OUT u_second_max, value IN NUMBER) RETURN NUMBER,
-- Corresponds to the Collector.combineer() function
MEMBER FUNCTION ODCIAggregateMerge(self IN OUT u_second_max, ctx2 IN u_second_max) RETURN NUMBER,
-- Correspodns to the Collector.finisher() function
MEMBER FUNCTION ODCIAggregateTerminate(self IN u_second_max, returnValue OUT NUMBER, flags IN NUMBER) RETURN NUMBER
)
/
-- This is our "colletor" implementation
CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY u_second_max IS
STATIC FUNCTION ODCIAggregateInitialize(sctx IN OUT u_second_max)
RETURN NUMBER IS
BEGIN
SCTX := U_SECOND_MAX(0, 0);
RETURN ODCIConst.Success;
END;
MEMBER FUNCTION ODCIAggregateIterate(self IN OUT u_second_max, value IN NUMBER) RETURN NUMBER IS
BEGIN
IF VALUE > SELF.MAX THEN
SELF.SECMAX := SELF.MAX;
SELF.MAX := VALUE;
ELSIF VALUE > SELF.SECMAX THEN
SELF.SECMAX := VALUE;
END IF;
RETURN ODCIConst.Success;
END;
MEMBER FUNCTION ODCIAggregateTerminate(self IN u_second_max, returnValue OUT NUMBER, flags IN NUMBER) RETURN NUMBER IS
BEGIN
RETURNVALUE := SELF.SECMAX;
RETURN ODCIConst.Success;
END;
MEMBER FUNCTION ODCIAggregateMerge(self IN OUT u_second_max, ctx2 IN u_second_max) RETURN NUMBER IS
BEGIN
IF CTX2.MAX > SELF.MAX THEN
SELF.SECMAX := SELF.MAX;
SELF.MAX := CTX2.MAX;
IF CTX2.SECMAX > SELF.SECMAX THEN
SELF.SECMAX := CTX2.SECMAX;
END IF;
ELSIF CTX2.MAX > SELF.SECMAX THEN
SELF.SECMAX := CTX2.MAX;
END IF;
RETURN ODCIConst.Success;
END;
END;
/
-- Finally, we have to give this aggregate function a name
CREATE FUNCTION SECOND_MAX (input NUMBER) RETURN NUMBER
PARALLEL_ENABLE AGGREGATE USING u_second_max;
/
```

```
SELECT
max(film_id),
second_max(film_id)
FROM film;
```

MAX SECOND_MAX ------------------ 1000 999And what’s even better, we can use the aggregate function as a window function for free!

```
SELECT
film_id,
length,
max(film_id) OVER (PARTITION BY length),
second_max(film_id) OVER (PARTITION BY length)
FROM film
ORDER BY length, film_id;
```

FILM_ID LENGTH MAX SECOND_MAX --------------------------------- 15 46 730 505 469 46 730 505 504 46 730 505 505 46 730 505 730 46 730 505 237 47 869 784 247 47 869 784 393 47 869 784 398 47 869 784 407 47 869 784 784 47 869 784 869 47 869 784 2 48 931 866 410 48 931 866 575 48 931 866 630 48 931 866 634 48 931 866 657 48 931 866 670 48 931 866 753 48 931 866 845 48 931 866 866 48 931 866 931 48 931 866Beautiful, right?

**PostgreSQL**PostgreSQL supports a slightly more concise syntax in the

`CREATE AGGREGATE`

statement. If we don’t allow for parallelism, we can write this minimal implementation:
```
CREATE FUNCTION second_max_sfunc (
state INTEGER[], data INTEGER
) RETURNS INTEGER[] AS
$$
BEGIN
IF state IS NULL THEN
RETURN ARRAY[data, NULL];
ELSE
RETURN CASE
WHEN state[1] > data
THEN CASE
WHEN state[2] > data
THEN state
ELSE ARRAY[state[1], data]
END
ELSE ARRAY[data, state[1]]
END;
END IF;
END;
$$ LANGUAGE plpgsql;
/
CREATE FUNCTION second_max_ffunc (
state INTEGER[]
) RETURNS INTEGER AS
$$
BEGIN
RETURN state[2];
END;
$$ LANGUAGE plpgsql;
CREATE AGGREGATE second_max (INTEGER) (
SFUNC = second_max_sfunc,
STYPE = INTEGER[],
FINALFUNC = second_max_ffunc
);
```

`STYPE`

(`Collector.supplier()`

), the `SFUNC`

(`Collector.accumulator()`

), and the `FINALFUNC`

(`Collector.finisher()`

) specifications.
**Other databases**Many other databases allow for specifying user defined aggregate functions. Look up your database manual’s details to learn more. They always work in the same way as a Java 8

`Collector`

.